Reviewers: Sarah Newman
- Goals / Objectives
- Things You’ll Need To Complete This Tutorial
- Crop a Raster to Vector Extent
- Crop a Raster Using Vector Extent
- Challenge: Crop to Vector Points Extent
- Define an Extent
- Extract Raster Pixels Values Using Vector Polygons
- Summarize Extracted Raster Values
- Challenge: Extract Raster Height Values For Plot Locations
This tutorial explains how to crop a raster using the extent of a vector shapefile. We will also cover how to extract values from a raster that occur within a set of polygons, or in a buffer (surrounding) region around a set of points.
R Skill Level: Intermediate - you’ve got the basics of
Goals / Objectives
After completing this activity, you will:
- Be able to crop a raster to the extent of a vector layer.
- Be able to extract values from raster that correspond to a vector file overlay.
Things You’ll Need To Complete This Tutorial
You will need the most current version of
R and, preferably,
on your computer to complete this tutorial.
Install R Packages
- More on Packages in R - Adapted from Software Carpentry.
These vector data provide information on the site characterization and infrastructure at the National Ecological Observatory Network’s Harvard Forest field site. The Harvard Forest shapefiles are from the Harvard Forest GIS & Map archives. US Country and State Boundary layers are from the US Census Bureau.
The LiDAR and imagery data used to create this raster teaching data subset were collected over the National Ecological Observatory Network’s Harvard Forest and San Joaquin Experimental Range field sites and processed at NEON headquarters. The entire dataset can be accessed by request from the NEON Airborne Data Request Page on the NEON website.
Set Working Directory: This lesson assumes that you have set your working
directory to the location of the downloaded and unzipped data subsets. An overview
of setting the working directory in
R can be found here.
R Script & Challenge Code: NEON data lessons often contain challenges that reinforce
learned skills. If available, the code for challenge solutions is found in the
R script of the entire lesson, available in the footer of each lesson page.
Crop a Raster to Vector Extent
We often work with spatial layers that have different spatial extents.
The graphic below illustrates the extent of several of the spatial layers that we have worked with in this vector data tutorial series:
- Area of interest (AOI) – blue
- Roads and trails – purple
- Vegetation plot locations – black
and a raster file, that we will introduce this tutorial:
- A canopy height model (CHM) in GeoTIFF format – green
Frequent use cases of cropping a raster file include reducing file size and creating maps.
Sometimes we have a raster file that is much larger than our study area or area of interest. It is often most efficient to crop the raster to the extent of our study area to keep reduce file sizes as we process our data.
Cropping a raster can also be useful when creating pretty maps so that the raster layer matches the extent of the desired vector layers.
We will begin by importing four vector shapefiles (field site boundary, roads/trails, tower location, and veg study plot locations) and one raster GeoTIFF file, a Canopy Height Model for the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts. These data can be used to create maps that characterize our study location.
If you have completed the Vector 00-04 tutorials in this Introduction to Working with Vector Data in R series, you can skip this code as you have already created these object.)
# load necessary packages library(rgdal) # for vector work; sp package should always load with rgdal. library (raster) # set working directory to data folder # setwd("pathToDirHere") # Imported in Vector 00: Vector Data in R - Open & Plot Data # shapefile aoiBoundary_HARV <- readOGR("NEON-DS-Site-Layout-Files/HARV/", "HarClip_UTMZ18") # Import a line shapefile lines_HARV <- readOGR( "NEON-DS-Site-Layout-Files/HARV/", "HARV_roads") # Import a point shapefile point_HARV <- readOGR("NEON-DS-Site-Layout-Files/HARV/", "HARVtower_UTM18N") # Imported in Vector 02: .csv to Shapefile in R # import raster Canopy Height Model (CHM) chm_HARV <- raster("NEON-DS-Airborne-Remote-Sensing/HARV/CHM/HARV_chmCrop.tif")
Crop a Raster Using Vector Extent
We can use the
crop function to crop a raster to the extent of another spatial
object. To do this, we need to specify the raster to be cropped and the spatial
object that will be used to crop the raster.
R will use the
extent of the
spatial object as the cropping boundary.
# plot full CHM plot(chm_HARV, main="LiDAR CHM - Not Cropped\nNEON Harvard Forest Field Site")
# crop the chm chm_HARV_Crop <- crop(x = chm_HARV, y = aoiBoundary_HARV) # plot full CHM plot(extent(chm_HARV), lwd=4,col="springgreen", main="LiDAR CHM - Cropped\nNEON Harvard Forest Field Site", xlab="easting", ylab="northing") plot(chm_HARV_Crop, add=TRUE)
We can see from the plot above that the full CHM extent (plotted in green) is
much larger than the resulting cropped raster. Our new cropped CHM now has the
same extent as the
aoiBoundary_HARV object that was used as a crop extent
(blue boarder below).
We can look at the extent of all the other objects.
# lets look at the extent of all of our objects extent(chm_HARV) ## class : Extent ## xmin : 731453 ## xmax : 733150 ## ymin : 4712471 ## ymax : 4713838 extent(chm_HARV_Crop) ## class : Extent ## xmin : 732128 ## xmax : 732251 ## ymin : 4713209 ## ymax : 4713359 extent(aoiBoundary_HARV) ## class : Extent ## xmin : 732128 ## xmax : 732251.1 ## ymin : 4713209 ## ymax : 4713359
Which object has the largest extent? Our plot location extent is not the largest but is larger than the AOI Boundary. It would be nice to see our vegetation plot locations with the Canopy Height Model information.
Challenge: Crop to Vector Points Extent
- Crop the Canopy Height Model to the extent of the study plot locations.
- Plot the vegetation plot location points on top of the Canopy Height Model.
If you completed
.csv to Shapefile in R
you have these plot locations as the spatial
R spatial object
plot.locationsSp_HARV. Otherwise, import the locations from the
\HARV\PlotLocations_HARV.shp shapefile in the downloaded data.
In the plot above, created in the challenge, all the vegetation plot locations (blue) appear on the Canopy Height Model raster layer except for one. One is situated on the white space. Why?
A modification of the first figure in this tutorial is below, showing the relative extents of all the spatial objects. Notice that the extent for our vegetation plot layer (black) extends further west than the extent of our CHM raster (bright green). The crop function will make a raster extent smaller, it will not expand the extent in areas where there are no data. Thus, extent of our vegetation plot layer will still extend further west than the extent of our (cropped) raster data (dark green).
Define an Extent
We can also use an
extent() method to define an extent to be used as a cropping
boundary. This creates an object of class
# extent format (xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax) new.extent <- extent(732161.2, 732238.7, 4713249, 4713333) class(new.extent) ##  "Extent" ## attr(,"package") ##  "raster"
Once we have defined the extent, we can use the
crop function to crop our
# crop raster CHM_HARV_manualCrop <- crop(x = chm_HARV, y = new.extent) # plot extent boundary and newly cropped raster plot(aoiBoundary_HARV, main = "Manually Cropped Raster\n NEON Harvard Forest Field Site") plot(new.extent, col="brown", lwd=4, add = TRUE) plot(CHM_HARV_manualCrop, add = TRUE)
Notice that our manual
new.extent (in red) is smaller than the
aoiBoundary_HARV and that the raster is now the same as the
See the documentation for the
extent() function for more ways
to create an
- More on the
extent class in
Extract Raster Pixels Values Using Vector Polygons
Often we want to extract values from a raster layer for particular locations - for example, plot locations that we are sampling on the ground.
To do this in
R, we use the
extract() function. The
- The raster that we wish to extract values from,
- The vector layer containing the polygons that we wish to use as a boundary or boundaries,
- we can tell it to store the output values in a
df=TRUE(optional, default is to NOT return a
We will begin by extracting all canopy height pixel values located within our
aoiBoundary polygon which surrounds the tower located at the NEON Harvard
Forest field site.
# extract tree height for AOI # set df=TRUE to return a data.frame rather than a list of values tree_height <- extract(x = chm_HARV, y = aoiBoundary_HARV, df=TRUE) # view the object head(tree_height) ## ID HARV_chmCrop ## 1 1 21.20 ## 2 1 23.85 ## 3 1 23.83 ## 4 1 22.36 ## 5 1 23.95 ## 6 1 23.89 nrow(tree_height) ##  18450
When we use the extract command,
R extracts the value for each pixel located
within the boundary of the polygon being used to perform the extraction - in
this case the
aoiBoundary object (1 single polygon). In this case, the
function extracted values from 18,450 pixels.
extract function returns a
list of values as default. You can tell
to summarize the data in some way or to return the data as a
We can create a histogram of tree height values within the boundary to better
understand the structure or height distribution of trees. We can also use the
summary() function to view descriptive statistics including min, max and mean
height values. These values help us better understand vegetation at our field
# view histogram of tree heights in study area hist(tree_height$HARV_chmCrop, main="Histogram of CHM Height Values (m) \nNEON Harvard Forest Field Site", col="springgreen", xlab="Tree Height", ylab="Frequency of Pixels")
# view summary of values summary(tree_height$HARV_chmCrop) ## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. ## 2.03 21.36 22.81 22.43 23.97 38.17
- Check out the documentation for the
extract()function for more details (
Summarize Extracted Raster Values
We often want to extract summary values from a raster. We can tell
R the type
of summary statistic we are interested in using the
fun= method. Let’s extract
a mean height value for our AOI.
# extract the average tree height (calculated using the raster pixels) # located within the AOI polygon av_tree_height_AOI <- extract(x = chm_HARV, y = aoiBoundary_HARV, fun=mean, df=TRUE) # view output av_tree_height_AOI ## ID HARV_chmCrop ## 1 1 22.43018
It appears that the mean height value, extracted from our LiDAR data derived canopy height model is 22.43 meters.
##Extract Data using x,y Locations
We can also extract pixel values from a raster by defining a buffer or area
surrounding individual point locations using the
extract() function. To do this
we define the summary method (
fun=mean) and the buffer distance (
which represents the radius of a circular region around each point.
The units of the buffer are the same units of the data
Let’s put this into practice by figuring out the average tree height in the 20m around the tower location.
# what are the units of our buffer crs(point_HARV) ## CRS arguments: ## +proj=utm +zone=18 +datum=WGS84 +units=m +no_defs +ellps=WGS84 ## +towgs84=0,0,0 # extract the average tree height (height is given by the raster pixel value) # at the tower location # use a buffer of 20 meters and mean function (fun) av_tree_height_tower <- extract(x = chm_HARV, y = point_HARV, buffer=20, fun=mean, df=TRUE) # view data head(av_tree_height_tower) ## ID HARV_chmCrop ## 1 1 22.38812 # how many pixels were extracted nrow(av_tree_height_tower) ##  1
Challenge: Extract Raster Height Values For Plot Locations
Use the plot location points shapefile
HARV/plot.locations_HARV.shp or spatial
plot.locationsSp_HARV to extract an average tree height value for the
area within 20m of each vegetation plot location in the study area.
Create a simple plot showing the mean tree height of each plot using the
function in base-R.