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Raster Data structure - Pixels

Raster Data Structure.

Single vs Multiple Band rasters

A raster can have 1 or more bands.

Data Cubes

A multi-band raster is sometimes referred to as a data cube.

Spatial resolution & Spatial Extent

A raster consists of a series of pixels, each with the same dimensions and shape. In the case of rasters derived from airborne sensors, each pixel represents an area of space on the Earth’s surface. The size of the area on the surface that each pixel covers is known as the spatial resolution of the image. For instance, an image that has a 1 m spatial resolution means that each pixel in the image represents a 1 m x 1 m area.

The spatial resolution of a raster refers the size of each cell (in meters in this example). This size in turn relates to the area on the ground that the pixel represents.
A raster at the same extent with more pixels will have a higher resolution (it looks more "crisp"). A raster that is stretched over the same extent with fewer pixels will look more blury and will be of lower resolution.

Raster Extent

To be located geographically, the image's location needs to be defined in geographic space (on a spatial grid). The spatial extent defines the 4 corners of a raster within a given coordinate reference system.

Coordinate Reference Systems